Their enmity continuing, Marie Antoinette played a decisive role in defeating him in his aims to become the mayor of Paris in November 1791. Elle influença Louis XVI à s'opposer à la Révolution. Marie-Antoinette d'Autriche Son époque Evénements importants qui ont eu lieu à ce moment. , On the eve of the opening of the Estates-General, the queen attended the mass celebrating its return. As time went on, these came to focus more and more on the Queen. Gathered from those who lived during the same time period, were born in the same place, or who have a family name in common. ", especially when he took the oath to protect the nation and to enforce the laws voted by the Constitutional Assembly. The images on this website can enable discovery and collaboration and support new scholarship, and we encourage their use. While from late 1787 up to his death in June 1789, Marie Antoinette's primary concern was the continued deterioration of the health of the Dauphin, who suffered from tuberculosis, she was directly involved in the exile of the Parlement, the May Edicts, and the announcement regarding the Estates-General. « Marie-Antoinette d'Autriche, reine de France (1755-1793), en robe à paniers vers 1785 » is kept at Châteaux de Versailles et de Trianon, Versailles, France. 0:09. As queen, Marie-Antoinette was always unpopular.  On 14 May she met her husband at the edge of the forest of Compiègne. There had been several plots designed to help the royal family escape, which the queen had rejected because she would not leave without the king, or which had ceased to be viable because of the king's indecision. , Marie Antoinette continued to perform charitable functions and attend religious ceremonies, but dedicated most of her time to her children. The scandal discredited the monarchy and encouraged the nobles to vigorously oppose (1787–88) all the financial reforms advocated by the king’s ministers. Marie Antoinette (/ˌæntwəˈnɛt, ˌɒ̃t-/, French: [maʁi ɑ̃twanɛt] (listen); born Maria Antonia Josepha Johanna; 2 November 1755 – 16 October 1793) was the last queen of France before the French Revolution. By the end of May, the Girondins had been chased from power. , In 1783, the queen was busy with the creation of her "hamlet", a rustic retreat built by her favored architect, Richard Mique, according to the designs of the painter Hubert Robert. She was brought before the Revolutionary tribunal on October 14, 1793, and was guillotined two days later. 7:13.  This situation lasted until the spring of 1792.  In the hours left to her, she composed a letter to her sister-in-law, Madame Élisabeth, affirming her clear conscience, her Catholic faith, and her love and concern for her children. On 15 January 1793, by a majority of six votes, he was condemned to death by guillotine and executed on 21 January 1793. Posted by elena maria vidal at 2:00 AM. Riliane owns a horse, Josephine; the horse is often the representative animal of pride. Marie Antoinette, par Mme Vigée Lebrun en 1783 Directed by Benjamin Lehrer. , After Louis' execution, Marie Antoinette's fate became a central question of the National Convention. En 1770, elle était mariée au Dauphin français, qui, quatre ans plus […] The long-standing enmity between Austria and France didn't help her popularity at court. Testament de Marie-Antoinette-Josèphe-Jeanne de Lorraine, archiduchesse d'Autriche - broché, reine de France et de Navarre, née à Vienne le 2 novembre 1755, morte martyre le 16 octobre 1793 She learned to play the harp, the harpsichord and the flute. A constitutional priest was assigned to her to hear her final confession. , In June 1783, Marie Antoinette's new pregnancy was announced, but on the night of 1–2 November, her 28th birthday, she suffered a miscarriage. She put on a plain white dress, white being the color worn by widowed queens of France. Discover (and save!) In March 1791 Pope Pius VI had condemned the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, reluctantly signed by Louis XVI, which reduced the number of bishops from 132 to 93, imposed the election of bishops and all members of the clergy by departmental or district assemblies of electors, and reduced the Pope's authority over the Church. They called for an escape to the interior of France and an appeal for royalist support in the provinces. She deliberately did not wear much jewellery, wishing it to be known that her children were her only true treasure. Elle est citée par Jean-Jacques Rousseau comme le dit d’« une grande princesse » dans ses Confessions, livre VI, dans un extrait écrit en 1770 alors que Marie-Antoinette … . , A week later, several of the royal family's attendants, among them the Princesse de Lamballe, were taken for interrogation by the Paris Commune. Marie-Antoinette-Josèphe-Jeanne d'Autriche-Lorraine, 1755 – 1793. Marie Antoinette, who had insisted on the arrest of the Cardinal, was dealt a heavy personal blow, as was the monarchy, and despite the fact that the guilty parties were tried and convicted, the affair proved to be extremely damaging to her reputation, which never recovered from it. -Quand elle s'est  In 2016, the Telegraph's Henry Samuel announced that researchers at France's Research Centre for the Conservation of Collections (CRCC), "using cutting-edge x-ray and different infrared scanners," had deciphered a letter from her that proved the affair. Afin de consolider ce rapprochement diplomatique, Louis XV et l’impératrice Marie-Thérèse décident de marier leurs enfants respectifs. , Charged with treason against the French First Republic, Louis XVI was separated from his family and tried in December. The primary motive for the queen's involvement in political affairs in this period may arguably have more to do with court factionalism than any true interest on her part in politics themselves, but she played an important role in aiding the American Revolution by securing Austrian and Russian support for France, which resulted in the establishment of a neutral league that stopped Great Britain's attack, and by weighing indecisively for the nomination of Philippe Henri, marquis de Ségur as Minister of War and Charles Eugène Gabriel de La Croix, marquis de Castries as Secretary of the Navy in 1780, who helped George Washington to defeat the British in the American Revolutionary War, which ended in 1783. Unlike her husband, who had been taken to his execution in a carriage (carrosse), she had to sit in an open cart (charrette) for the hour it took to convey her from the Conciergerie via the rue Saint-Honoré thoroughfare to reach the guillotine erected in the Place de la Révolution (the present-day Place de la Concorde). Je ne l’ai pas fait exprès" or "Pardon me, sir, I did not do it on purpose", after accidentally stepping on her executioner's shoe.  The new fashion called for a simpler feminine look, typified first by the rustic robe à la polonaise style and later by the gaulle, a layered muslin dress Marie Antoinette wore in a 1783 Vigée-Le Brun portrait. Marie Antoinette d'Autriche Reine de France. Marie-Antoinette d'Autriche (1755 -1793) Reine de France en 1774, et fille de l'empereur germanique François Ier. Marie Antoinette had profoundly disliked Rohan since the time he had been the French ambassador to Vienna when she was a child. , On the night of 1 August, at 1:00 in the morning, Marie Antoinette was transferred from the Temple to an isolated cell in the Conciergerie as 'Prisoner n° 280'. Christian burial of the royal remains took place three days later, on 21 January, in the necropolis of French kings at the Basilica of St Denis. Mme de La Motte tricked Rohan into buying the necklace as a gift to Marie Antoinette, for him to gain the queen's favor. , On 27 April 1784, Beaumarchais's play The Marriage of Figaro premiered in Paris. In her new role and with increasing political power, the queen tried to improve the awkward situation brewing between the assembly and the king. ), who was adopted in 1790 along with her two older sisters when her parents, an usher and his wife in service of the king, had died. audreylovesparis: “This cypher of Marie Antoinette adorns the cover of her Prayer Book. Continuing deterioration of the financial situation despite cutbacks to the royal retinue and court expenses ultimately forced the king, the queen and the Minister of Finance, Calonne, at the urging of Vergennes, to call a session of the Assembly of Notables, after a hiatus of 160 years. , The only time the royal couple returned to Paris in that period was on 14 July to attend the Fête de la Fédération, an official ceremony held at the Champ de Mars in commemoration of the fall of the Bastille one year earlier. Rose Bertin created dresses for her, and hairstyles such as poufs, up to three feet (90 cm) high, and the panache (a spray of feather plumes).  Around the same time, Jeanne de Valois-Saint-Rémy escaped from prison and fled to London, where she published damaging slander concerning her supposed amorous affair with the queen.  Her life has been the subject of many films, such as the 2006 film Marie Antoinette. [...], Auction est la plateforme de vente aux enchères d'objets d'art de référence. Share.  Despite the private tutoring she received, the results of her schooling were less than satisfactory. It further deteriorated when Louis XVI tried to use a lit de justice on 11 November to impose legislation. Brought safely back to Paris, they were met with total silence by the crowd.  The queen did play a decisive role in the disgrace and exile of the most powerful of Louis XV's ministers, the duc d'Aiguillon. As to Fersen, despite the strong restriction imposed on the queen, he was able to see her a final time in February 1792.. Despite his dislike of the queen—he detested her as much as she detested him and at one time had even threatened to send her to a convent—he was persuaded by the mayor of Paris, Jean Sylvain Bailly, to work and collaborate with her, and allowed her to see Fersen a number of times. Medium: oil on canvas.  Nevertheless, following Joseph's intervention, the marriage was finally consummated in August 1777. She was Louis XV's mistress and had considerable political influence over him. However, when the portraitist began her composition in 1786, there were four royal children.  Fraser has also noted that the birthdate matches up perfectly with a known conjugal visit from the King. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Vintage brass button detailing . He began to institute more cutbacks at court while trying to restore the royal absolute power weakened by parliament. , Meanwhile, the queen began to institute changes in court customs.  These suspicions of illegitimacy, along with the continued publication of the libelles and never-ending cavalcades of court intrigues, the actions of Joseph II in the Kettle War, the purchase of Saint-Cloud, and the Affair of the Diamond Necklace combined to turn popular opinion sharply against the queen, and the image of a licentious, spendthrift, empty-headed foreign queen was quickly taking root in the French psyche.. Barnave remained the most important advisor and supporter of the queen, who was willing to work with him as long as he met her demands, which he did to a large extent. Ce projet voit le jour une douzaine d’années plus tard : le duc de Berry, dauphin de France, âgé de 15 ans, épouse Marie-Antoinette, archiduchesse d’Autriche, âgée de People with similar attributes to Marie Antoinette D AUTRICHE. Accueil; Portails thématiques; Article au hasard; Contact She had played a decisive role in the disgrace of the reformer ministers of finance, Turgot (in 1776), and Jacques Necker (first dismissal in 1781). The fall of finance minister Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot in 1776 must be attributed to the hostility of chief royal adviser Jean-Frédéric Phélypeaux, comte de Maurepas, and to the differences that arose between Turgot and foreign minister Charles Gravier, comte de Vergennes, over French participation in the American Revolution rather than to the direct intervention of the queen. Varennes, une série inédite proposée par Europe 1 / Marie-Antoinette. Popular hatred of Marie-Antoinette contributed to the monarchy’s overthrow in 1792 and to her and Louis XVI’s subsequent imprisonment. Elle est la dernière reine de l’Ancien Régime. Several events were linked to Marie Antoinette during the Revolution after the government had placed the royal family under house arrest in the Tuileries Palace in October 1789.  Moreover, the view that the unpopular queen was controlling the king further degraded the royal couple's standing with the people, which the Jacobins successfully exploited after their return from Varennes to advance their radical agenda to abolish the monarchy. Le Martyre de Marie-Antoinette d'Autriche.  However, the hamlet was not an eccentricity of Marie Antoinette's. Because its capacity was exhausted the cemetery was closed the following year, on 25 March 1794. It inspired Mozart's Le Nozze di Figaro, which premiered in Vienna on 1 May 1786. Après trois siècles de rivalités, la France et l’Autriche s'allient en 1756. , A second visit from Joseph II, which took place in July 1781 to reaffirm the Franco-Austrian alliance and also to see his sister, was tainted by false rumours that Marie Antoinette was sending money to him from the French treasury. your own Pins on Pinterest  The majority of Marie Antoinette's and Louis XVII's biographers believe that the young prince was the biological son of Louis XVI, including Stefan Zweig and Antonia Fraser, who believe that Fersen and Marie Antoinette were indeed romantically involved. She became increasingly unpopular among the people, however, with the French libelles accusing her of being profligate, promiscuous, harboring sympathies for France's perceived enemies—particularly her native Austria—and her children of being illegitimate. (4 ½ x 6 1/8 in.) Riliane also says the phrase "Let them eat cake", popularly attributed to Marie Antoinette; both women share brioche as their trademark food. It was with the assistance of the Swedish count Hans Axel von Fersen, French aristocrat Louis Auguste Le Tonnelier de Breteuil, and royalist general François-Claude-Amour de Bouillé that the plans were laid for the flight of the royal family to Montmédy, on the eastern frontier. -Elle est née le 2 novembre 1755 á Vienne, et elle est mort le 16 octobre 1793 á Paris, avec 37 ans. Versailles Louis Xvi Marie Antoinette Rococo French History Ivy House Ludwig Prayer Book French Revolution. Over 5,000 guests attended their wedding ceremony. Louis-Marie SICARDI (1743-1825) "Portrait de Marie Antoinette d'Autriche, 1819". Engraving by G. Cruitshant. Diary and Correspondence of Count Axel Fersen: Grand … Marie-Antoinette en tenue de chasse, l'un des … Catherine Dautriche 1674 - 1741.  The couple's longtime failure to consummate the marriage plagued the reputations of both Louis-Auguste and Marie Antoinette for the next seven years. Because of Louis XVI’s indecisiveness, Marie-Antoinette played an increasingly prominent political role. Marie-Thérèse Charlotte, Louis-Jospeh Xavier François, Louis-Charles et For instance, a writing table attributed to Riesener, now located at Waddesdon Manor, bears witness to Marie-Antoinette's desire to escape the oppressive formality of court life, when she decided to move the table from the Queen's boudoir de la Meridienne at Versailles to her humble interior, the Petit Trianon. Marie-Antoinette, in full Marie-Antoinette-Josèphe-Jeanne d’Autriche-Lorraine (Austria-Lorraine), originally German Maria Antonia Josepha Joanna von Österreich-Lothringen, (born November 2, 1755, Vienna, Austria—died October 16, 1793, Paris, France), Austrian queen consort of King Louis XVI of France (1774–93). Marie Antoinette's four live-born children were: Marie Antoinette began to abandon her more carefree activities to become increasingly involved in politics in her role as Queen of France. , Despite the general celebration over the birth of the Dauphin, Marie Antoinette's political influence, such as it was, did greatly benefit Austria.   The people of France saw her death as a necessary step toward completing the revolution. Marie-Antoinette d'Autriche, reine de France (1755-1793), en robe à paniers vers 1785 This artwork is a painting from the classical period. Discredited by the royal family’s failed escape, Marie-Antoinette attempted to shore up the rapidly deteriorating position of the crown by opening secret negotiations with the leaders of the constitutional monarchists in the Constituent Assembly, namely Antoine Barnave and Theodore and Alexandre de Lameth. Marie Antoinette was instrumental in the reinstatement of Jacques Necker as Finance Minister on 26 August, a popular move, even though she herself was worried that it would go against her if Necker proved unsuccessful in reforming the country's finances. Despite his high clerical position at the Court, she never addressed a word to him.  While the sole fault for the financial crisis did not lie with her, Marie Antoinette was the biggest obstacle to any major reform effort. In 1774, when her husband ascended the throne as Louis XVI, she became queen. "'16 ["Remain a good … (En une seule nuit ils étaient devenus blancs comme ceux d'une femme de soixante-dix ans. Marie Antoinette did not attend the meeting and her absence resulted in accusations that the queen was trying to undermine its purpose. supprimés ou omis par Courtois...", "The Many Bodies of Marie Antoinette: Political Pornography and the Problem of the Feminine in the French Revolution", "Celebrating Marie-Antoinette on her birthday", "Marie Antoinette's silk shoe goes up for sale in Versailles", Story of Marie Antoinette with Primary Sources, Marie Antoinette's official Versailles profile, Online catalog of Marie Antoinette's personal reading library, Celebrating Marie-Antoinette blog article, Isabella Clara Eugenia, Co-sovereign of the Habsburg Netherlands, Maria Christina, Princess of Transylvania, Maria Maddalena, Grand Duchess of Tuscany, Eleanor, Queen of Poland, Duchess of Lorraine, Maria Anna Josepha, Electoral Princess of the Palatinate, Maria Clementina, Hereditary Princess of Naples, Margaretha Klementine, Princess of Thurn and Taxis, Princess Karoline Marie of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Maria Henrietta, Princess of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst, Elisabeth Marie, Princess of Windisch-Graetz, Margarita, Marchioness Taliani di Marchio, Catherine, Duchess of Mantua and Montferrat, Maria Carolina, Queen of Naples and Sicily, Auguste Ferdinande, Princess Luitpold of Bavaria, Maria Theresa, Archduchess Charles Stephen of Austria, Karoline Marie, Princess Leopold of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Maria Immaculata, Nobile Inigo Neri Sereneri, Agnes, Princess Karl Alfred of Liechtenstein, Princess Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate, Archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria-Este, Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick, Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen, François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau, Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth, Louis Michel le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau, List of people associated with the French Revolution, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Marie_Antoinette&oldid=994969893, French people executed by guillotine during the French Revolution, People executed for treason against France, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from April 2011, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2020, Vague or ambiguous geographic scope from August 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2019, Pages using Sister project links with wikidata mismatch, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Marie Antoinette d Autriche Pour les articles homonymes, voir Marie Antoinette. The images on this website can enable discovery and collaboration and support new scholarship, and we encourage their use. parcours de vie (Béa) père meut lorsqu'elle a 18 ans et devient reine du pays. , Long after her death, Marie Antoinette remains a major historical figure linked with conservatism, the Catholic Church, wealth, and fashion. Europe 1. À quatorze ans, elle est mariée à Louis-Auguste de Bourbon, dauphin de France, futur Louis XVI, le 16 mai 1770 à Versailles Some of her contemporaries, such as Thomas Jefferson, attributed to her the start of the French Revolution.  Maria Antonia was born on All Souls Day, a Catholic day of mourning, and during her childhood her birthday was instead celebrated the day before, on All Saint's Day, due to the connotations of the date. , Preparing for her execution, she had to change clothes in front of her guards. She sang during the family's evening gatherings, as she had a beautiful voice. Sa mère, Marie-Thérèse d'Autriche (impératrice), archiduchesse d'Autriche, reine de Bohême et de Hongrie, était mariée à François Ier de Lorraine, empereur du Saint-Empire romain germanique. ", Suggestions that Louis suffered from phimosis, which was relieved by circumcision, have been discredited. The queen's political ideas and her belief in the absolute power of monarchs were based on France's long-established tradition of the divine right of kings.  In August 1791, the Declaration of Pillnitz threatened an invasion of France. Last Queen of France before the French Revolution, wife of Louis XVI. Après 8 ans 1/2 après son mariage, elle accouche de son 1er enfant, le seul qui parviendra à l'âge adulte. Here is a book which appears to be a drama about Marie-Antoinette and there is one about Louis XVI as well. She counted most on the support of her Austrian family. … , Marie Antoinette's actions in refusing to collaborate with the Girondins, in power between April and June 1792, led them to denounce the treason of the Austrian comity, a direct allusion to the queen. After Madame Roland sent a letter to the king denouncing the queen's role in these matters, urged by the queen, Louis XVI disbanded the government, thus losing his majority in the Assembly. Riliane's last name "d'Autriche" means "from Austria" in French, a name shared with Marie Antoinette.  She also excelled at dancing, had "exquisite" poise, and loved dolls. Her favourite objects filled her small, private chateau and reveal aspects of Marie-Antoinette's character that have been obscured by satirical political prints, such as those in Les Tableaux de la Révolution. After the death of her brother Joseph in 1790, his successor, Leopold, was willing to support her to a limited degree. In her youth, she was a pawn on the diplomatic chessboard of Europe, as France and Austria attempted to navigate the complex web of allegiances that shaped the continent in the wake of the Seven Years’ War.