Adjectives that follow these patterns include, e.g., sains 'holy', bruns So Marsile sent Blancandrin as his envoy to Charlemagne, with treasures and the selected high-ranking hostages. We need your help to preserve & document ancient languages. With Old between a masculine/feminine and a neuter form (La. Selon la légende, Roland, le neveu de Charlemagne, serait mort à Roncevaux en combattant les Sarrasins. At this point, Roland was jolted to his sense, and sensing a cowering thief, swung the Oliphant against the pagan. The other biographer is named Notker. Song of Roland Charlemagne's army is fighting the Muslims in Spain. Hybrid declensions are the result of the on-going breakdown of the case system, which povre 'poor') form a special group. Roland regained his sense, only to find the archbishop dead with his entrails spilled on the ground near the water. Samson ended the almacor’s life; Anseis overthrew Turgis; Engeler ends Escremiz of Valterne; Oton over Estorgans, Berenger against Astramariz. The horn broke the helmet and the Saracen’s skull, before he gouged out both eyes. Roland severed Marsile’s hand, as well as chopping off Jurfaleu the Blond’s head; Jurfaleu was Marsile’s son. Only those who accept Christianity and baptised were spared; so over 100,000 Saragossa residents were baptised. After 15 blows against various unnamed Saracens, Roland’s spear was destroyed, so he drew Durendal from his scabbard, and sliced Cherubles from head down to his groin. Ganelon was placed under detention of Charlemagne’s master cook, whose charges would beat Roland’s stepfather, until the king’s return. Ganelon fera tout pour que celle- ci soit dirigée par Roland. Despite the size of Baligant’s army, Charlemagne’s smaller army proved to be more experienced. 'archbishop', ermite 'hermit', and others. At Saragossa, Marsile gathered four-hundred thousand Saracen warriors to attack Roland’s twenty thousand men. When the Franks heard the arrival of their enemies, Oliver went to investigate on the hilltop and saw the Saracens vastly outnumbered them. Roland’s stepfather, Ganelon, on the other hand, rebuked the young hero of being reckless and for warmongering. In the Chansons de Geste the deeds (Latin gesta) of the great heroes of Christian lineage are described. Charlemagne angrily called his noblemen “traitors”. La Chanson de Roland (The Song of Roland) is a so-called Chanson de Geste, one of the major genres of French medieval literature in the 12th and 13th centuries. The very large majority of nouns have a singular and a plural form. As the oldest Chanson de Geste, the Chanson de Roland is generally dated in the early 12th century (ca. On the other side, Baligant’s son, Malpramis, led the spearhead division. Ganelon was angry stepson’s nomination because anyone who goes would probably not return alive, but he reluctantly accepted the position when Charlemagne thought he was the ideal candidate. Enclosed in the hilt was St Peter’s tooth, St Basil’s blood, hair from St Denis and part of the raiment of St Mary, Jesus’ mother. Charlemagne put forward that Ganelon accepted gold, arranging so that Marsile could ambush the force of the Twelve Peers, leading to the death of Roland and his companions. Oliver returned to Roland with the news that they could not possibly win with only 20,000 knights; his advice was that Roland should sound the horn, so Charlemagne reinforced them. When the fourth declension disappeared, these He found the bodies of the Twelve Peers. Roland was the main character of the epic, Chanson de Roland, which recounted the last stand of the Twelve Peers at Rencesvals. Grandonie of Cappadocia, son of King Capuel, did a lot of damage on the Twelve Peers, accounting for Gerin, Gerer and Berenger, as well as Guiun from Saint-Antoine and Austorie of Valence. See more ideas about Charlemagne, Epic, Medieval. Selon la Vita Karoli Magni, œuvre écrite entre les années 829 et 836 par Eginhard, moine et chroniqueur, les Vascons massacrèrent Roland et toute son armée au cours de la bataille de Roncevaux. le filz - la fille ('the son' - 'the daughter), li tors 'the bull', la vache University of Texas at Austin It seemed that God was extending his hand to help Charlemagne, by causing the sun to stop, before it could set, so the Franks could catch the Saracens. That was how powerful Roland was. Neuf manuscrits du texte nous sont parvenus. But his prowess and glory (or lack of it) was short-lived; Roland hearing the rash Marsile’s nephew, drove his spear into Aelroth, breaking his back. When Marsile heard his wife Bramimonde, he cried out that Baligant’s army was fleeing towards their city, he knew that the emir was dead; Marsile also died from sorrow. The text is divided into laisses, stanzas of varying length. The two opposing vanguards clashed first, before the rest of the two large armies join in the battle. Naimes noticed a great deal of dust rising, and rightly assuming that the Saracens were fleeing from Rencesvals. 512-471-4271, Web Privacy Policy Tout le In the chanson (epic), the Saracens had ambushed Roland’s division at Rencesvals; but in Einhard’s biography, there was no Saracens at all; it was the Gascons and Barques responsible for this attack. In the next class of nouns, the ending The poems’ lengths range from approximately 1,500 to more than 18,000 lines. Roland flatly refused, mainly because he didn’t want people to see him as a coward, and that he was overconfident that they could defeat Marsile. See more ideas about Charlemagne, Medieval, Favorite childhood books. As Charlemagne moved his main body of his army through the pass of Rencesvals, Roland remained in Spain. Again, there are no mention of the Saracen rulers, Marsile and Baligant, whom figured so largely in the chanson. Pour se venger de Roland, il conseille à Marsile d'attaquer l'arrière garde de l'armée. The Chanson de Roland "describes Charlemagne's expedition into Spain and the disastrous battle of the rear guard...It recalls one of the most famous victims of the ambush. Although Old French still distinguishes between the nominative and the oblique, these The hero was unaware that one of the Saracens was feigning death. When Charlemagne broke the news, but told her that he could marry his son, Louis, she rejected the king’s offer, and collapsed, dead from grief. The poem’s probable author was a Norman poet, Turold, whose name is … Most these routed enemies were driven into the river Ebro, where they drowned. Bramimonde was held as royal captive, and she was to accompany to France, in the hope that she would become Christian. Each one hollowly boasting that he would be the one to kill Roland. Marsile should then gather half of his army to destroy Roland and his warriors in an ambush. Wounded, Marsile fled from the battlefield, which caused a major number of Saracens to abandon the battle like cowards. the adjectives belong to. Le personnage semble être le même que celui qui annonce la mort de Roland à Charlemagne dans le panneau suivant, ce qui l'identifierait à Baudouin, le demi-frère de Roland. 512-471-4566, For comments and inquiries, or to report issues, please contact the Web Master at The author of the chanson, clearly set out to immortalise the hero Roland and the so-called Twelve Peers, in similar fashion that later medieval poets immortalise King Arthur and his Knights of the Round Table. 'strong'). Thierry, on the other hand, was shorter, and slender in built. In Old French the first type of adjective follows the pattern of nominal As the oldest Chanson de Geste, the Chanson de Roland is generally dated in the early 12th century (ca. He was too late. declension of nouns. When Charlemagne gave his glove to Ganelon as the mark of his appointment, Ganelon rudely let the glove fall on the ground – which all members of the council saw as a bad omen. The Life of Charlemagne was written by the Monk of Saint Gall (c. 883). Historically, Charlemagne did besieged the Moorish city of Saragossa, but never captured it. or feminine and this so-called grammatical gender is unpredictable, with a few exceptions. The poem ended, shortly after Bramimonde accepted baptism and became a Christian; her name was changed to Juliana. Roland also felt that he was dying too because blowing the Oliphant had caused internal bleeding inside of his head. Twice more, Roland said he should sound the horn, but Oliver argued against it. Gerin killed Malprimis, while his companion account for the emir. Naimes would have lost his life, when he was struck by King Canabeus, Baligant’s brother, but he was rescued by Charlemagne. nominative-accusative and a genitive-dative. Though, Margariz attacked Oliver with his spear, the Frank paladin was unharmed, and the Saracen didn’t stay. Ganelon’s thirty kinsmen came to support him, particularly Pinabel from Castel de Sorence. Nouns in these classes have a Mar 28, 2014 - Explore Linda C. McCabe's board "Chanson de Roland", followed by 121 people on Pinterest. distinguished a masculine, feminine, and neuter form (La. As the two sides charged into one another, Aelroth boasted that they will destroy Charlemagne and his kingdom. -a; they therefore end in -e in Old French, by regular phonological development. primarily masculine nouns as well. Whether he was the original composer of the epic or that he was the compiler of Digby manuscript, or a fictional author, is uncertain. French li jorz 'day'). Anesis had fallen to an African named Malquiant, son of Malcuid, but Turpin took his revenge upon Malquiant. They leaped to their feet, and drew their swords, trading blow after blow. He was about to make arrangement for those who died their burial, but Baligant’s army arrived. well. Valdabrun killed Duke Samson, but Roland avenged his companion’s life. Roland lost his horse, Veillantif. Participate today. But even here, Gautier would face strong opposition from King Almari of Belferne. Among them are Falsaron, Marsile’s brother; a Berber king named Corsalis; Malprimis of Brigant; the emir from Balaguer; the almacor from Moriane; Turgis of Turteluse; Escremiz of Valterne; Estorgan and his companion Estramariz; Margariz of Seville; and Chernubles of Munigre. Upon hearing this news, Baligant set out to face Charlemagne’s army. With Charlemagne back at Aix, Marsile could try to reconquer the land and cities that Charlemagne has won. Ganelon’s kinsmen were not spared; they all were hanged on the gallows-trees. It was Blancandrin of Castel de Valfunde, who counsel Marsile with a plan to betray the offering peace to Charlemagne. And then, he died. Whereas the transition from Latin to French is characterized by the loss of the neuter, the six cases of Latin to the two cases in Old French), but also in the disappearance of The peace would be to lure Charlemagne out of Spain by offering hostages, treasures, and most importantly a false declaration that Marsile would become Charlemagne’s vassal and convert to the Christian faith. from the Latin neuter plural fortia 'strong things'. En 778, Charlemagne, récent vainqueur des Aquitains et des Lombards, lance deux armées dans le nord de l’Espagne, alors tenu par les musulmans (plus précisément, par l’émirat de Cordoue). Charlemagne also took hostages with him, from a number of Saracens, including from Ibn el Arabi and Abou Thaur. En 778 Charlemagne intervient dans le nord de l'Espagne alors sous domination musulmane, pour aider le gouverneur musulman Suleyman Ben Al-Arabi, révolté contre son chef l'émir de Cordoue. © Copyright 2020, genitive in combination with another noun, as in, adverbial expressions (e.g. in the nominative singular. Adjectival inflection shows different patterns according to gender and to the declension Ce n’est pas sur un coup de tête que Charlemagne s’engage dans cette nouvelle guerre : il est assuré du soutien de Sulyman ibn al-Arabi, le wali (représentant) de Saragosse, qui lui a pr… entire declensions (see the five declensions in Latin). Home | Arthurian Legends | Camelot | Age of Chivalry | Songs of Deeds. Seeing their emir dead, the Saracen warriors began to flee, with the Frankish warriors on their heel. Charlemagne embrasse Roland. With this plan from Ganelon, Marsile and those in his court rejoiced that Charlemagne’s ambassador was willing to commit treason out of spite for his stepson; they rewarded Ganelon with rich gifts. In time the irregularities of declensions Ia and IIa disappeared, for example when In the second vision, Charlemagne was in a chapel at Aix, where he was bitten by a wild boar, while a leopard attacked his body. Neither his father or his mother’s name were given in the Chanson de Roland. According to the legend, Charlemagne stayed in seven-year campaign in Spain, where he conquered much of the Moorish kingdom of Spain, eventually capturing Saragossa, the Moorish capital surrendering after defeating the army of Baligant. The hero also reminded the assembly that Charlemagne had previously sent an embassy, Basan and Basile, to Marsile, but they were treacherously beheaded the two counts. Roland then offer to go, but Oliver and the king, refused his nomination as ambassador, since Roland was no diplomat, and was clearly hostile to the Saracens. Charlemagne’s horse was called Tencendur and armed himself with his sword Joiuse, while Baligant’s sword was Preciuse and his spear Maltet. Toward the end of the 11th century, leading up to the First Crusade (1096-1099), this event developed legendary characteristics and the historical figures were interpreted as Christian heroes whose faith, loyalty, and courage in the battle against the pagan Saracens is continually praised, as in the Chanson de Roland. It was Roland who stopped Grandonie, just like he did against Cherubles earlier. It was Roland who voiced his rejection of the Saracen proposal of peace, and his distrust for Marsile. A limited Oliver finally feeling his death approaching, dismounted his horse, and confessed his sins, before his heart failed him. Both kings were unhorsed, when they smashed their spear against one another; they fought each other with their swords. Adjectival Declension, Adjectives in -re (feminine), Adjectival Declension, Adjectives in -re (masculine). referent and to a group of persons or objects, as in fruit 'fruit' and 'fruits', or Web Accessibility Policy Charlemagne immediately ordered his army to turn back to Spain, hoping that he would save what left of the rearguard force. Words in this class most often in origin belonged to the third declension in Latin, such Alternative Title: “The Song of Roland” La Chanson de Roland, English The Song of Roland, Old French epic poem that is probably the earliest (c. 1100) chanson de geste and is considered the masterpiece of the genre. The Song of Roland, or in French, La Chanson de Roland, is a chanson de geste, or epic poem of the Middle Ages. In the morning, Charlemagne called for his advisers, wanting to know who should remain behind and guard the passes and narrow defiles while the main body of Charlemagne’s army moved ahead into France. number of nouns have a so-called collective singular: the singular refers to a single Une armée de Charlemagne passant par l'est des Pyrénées s'empare de la Catalogne, une autre armée passant par l'ouest des Pyrénées conquiert la Navarre. So Charlemagne didn’t enter Spain in a conquest. Realising that even outnumbered, the Franks had slaughtered a hundred thousand of his men. Roland boasted that he needs no other than his eleven companions and his twenty thousand warriors that was already under his command. end in -e and that it lacks in some masculine nouns that do end in -e: Nominal Declensions, Class Ia (feminine nouns). This caused both anguish and anger in Roland. The Old French nominative goes back to the Latin nominative, whereas the oblique Roland was most likely to offend the Saracen king. Bramimonde surrendered the city to Charlemagne, when the Franks broke through the gates. the gender of the noun. Selon les Annales carolingiennes (ou Vita Caroli, « Vie de Charlemagne ») du chroniqueur Eginhard, après une campagne en Espagne à lappel de son allié, le gouverneur de Barcelone Suleyman Ibn al-Arabi, larrière-garde de Charlemagne  menée par le comte Roland, gouverneur des Marches de Bretagne doit faire face à une attaque surprise des Vascons dans un col des Pyrénées5. Roland died with other two other commanders: Eggihard, the King’s steward, and Anselm, Count Palatine. La Chanson de Roland a quatre parties : Partie qui va des laisses 1 à 79 dans la chanson. The noblemen now unanimously voted that Ganelon was guilty of treason. By this time, Marsile rode into thick of the battle, felling Bevon, Beaune of Dijon, and the peers – Yvoire, Yvon and Gerard of Roussillon. PCL 5.556 La trahison de Ganelon, beau-frère de Charlemagne et beau-père de Roland, qui est jaloux de la préférence de Charlemagne envers son neveu auquel l’empereur a confié l’arrière-garde de ses armées. other functions, among them: previous lesson An earlier source, the original Annales regni Francorum, make no mention of any massarce Charlemagne’s rearguard, no mention of the pass in Rencesvals. Cherubles wasn’t so lucky. He volunteered to go, but Charlemagne refused to be deprived of Naimes’ wisdom. La chanson de Roland Mon appréciation:--- Chanson française - Cartel de l'œuvre Époque/Dates À partir du XIème siècle Mouvement artistique Chanson de geste ... ami, tente de convaincre Roland d’appeler Charlemagne à la rescousse, mais il refuse, par orgueil. She was promptly buried. Some stood their ground before the river, and were annihilated. In practice this means that the case ending -s is used for feminine nouns that do not Archbishop Turpin also offered to go Marsile, but he was also rejected. Charlemagne immediately recognised that his dreams of Ganelon’s treachery, but he was powerless to prevent it. Nominal Declensions, Class IIa (masculine nouns ending in ustressed -e). Both aside tried to get the other side to surrender, because each side admired the opponent’s courage, but Pinabel refused to reconciliation if Ganelon must die as a traitor. Old French differs from all other stages of the language in that is still has Here (the revised annal), it does mention the Basques ambushing the rearguard at the top of the pass of the Pyrenees, but also make no mention of the Rencesvals by name. Two more times, Oliver returned to the hill and then back to Roland, calling upon his companion to call for aid, but each time, Roland rejected Oliver’s wise advice. Charlemagne (or Charles I) was besieging Cordoba, when King Marsile of Spain called upon a meeting at his palace in Saragossa, to discuss what they should do about Charlemagne. Charlemagne divided the rest of his force into 10 divisions, while Baligant had 40 divisions. This pagan thought the paladin was dead, and attempted to take Durendal from Roland. Charlemagne also ordered the immediate arrest of his treacherous brother-in-law. This caused the Saracens to panic and flee from the two implacable warriors. force 'strength' Adjectives that are included are: brief 'short', cruel 'cruel', grant 'great', So both armies got ready for battle, deploying the battalions and assigning captains to these divisions (there is a long description of this, which I will not list). Declension I when the adjective is feminine, and the pattern of nominal Declension II Roland called for the Franks to be armed and ready to fight the Saracen army. Blancandrin had even offered his own son as hostage. When Charlemagne brought up the issue of Roland taking half of his army to guard the passes and defiles, the hero immediately rejected his uncle’s offer. This declension includes nouns such as frere 'brother', gendre 'son-in-law', Also, Charlemagne had entered Spain, on the invitation of the Moorish embassy, requesting aid in ending the uprising. This however didn’t help the surviving Charlemagne’s rearguard, and the 50,000 Saracens still outnumbered Roland’s dwindling force; on the Saracen side, Marganice, Marsile’s uncle was still in command of the field, along with Alfrere and Garmalie. There is a revised edition of Annales regni Francorum, written about AD 800. Chanson d'Aspremont, British Library, Lansdowne Ms. 782 fo 22 vo, XIIIe siècle. Peut-être ne s’agit-il pas plus expressément, dans ces vers, d’une chanson sur Roland que d’une chanson sur Olivier ou Charlemagne. It was about this point Charlemagne arrived with his army, on the field littered with the dead. space, time, direction), as in. The Saracens seeing the Frankish army, they panic, and tried to reach Saragossa. fortis 'strong') vs. inanimate (neuter, e.g. However there are some notable warriors to join Roland; among them are Archbishop Turpin, Astor, Duke Gaifier and Count Gautier del Hum joined Roland. Among the accounts of Charlemagne's expedition, the Chanson de Roland is by far the most precious because of its poetic and historical worth. But this is absolutely all that connects it to history. Jun 5, 2019 - Epic poem by anonymous about a real battle between the French led by Charlemagne and the Moors led by Marsile . Charlemagne a 4 songes au long du récit, qui se groupent deux à deux:-Le premier et le deuxième ont lieu la nuit qui précède la désignation de Roland et le retour en France.-Le troisième et le quatrième ont lieu la veille de la victoire de Charlemagne sur Baligant. Ganelon swore before Charlemagne and the whole assembly that he would bring Roland’s downfall. Charlemagne must concentrate in capturing Saragossa and put his treacherous brother-in-law on trial. The author of the chanson de Roland was possibly Turoldus, whose name was include at the very end of the epic. In their journey, Blancandrin learned of Ganelon’s hatred for his stepson, and with the Saracen encouragement, Ganelon vowed to make Roland and the other members of the Twelve Peers pay with their lives for his humiliation at Charlemagne’s court. Charlemagne was unaware that Marsile indeed intending to follow the Frankish army, but with four hundred thousand armed Saracen warriors. as amor 'love', mer 'sea', color 'color', dolor 'sorrow', loi 'religion', distinct case forms; for feminine nouns the distinctions are primarily limited to number. Despite his wounds, Turpin took the hero’s Oliphant and went to a nearby stream, to fetch water for Roland, but weakened by his wounds and loss of blood, the Archbishop of Reims died. feminine adjectives is regular, that of masculine adjectives lacks the -s suffix At this point, the hero praised the sword, and listed some parts that make up his sword hilt. So that night, Charlemagne summoned his counsellors and noblemen, for advice on this matter of Marsile’s proposal. bonus, bona, bonum 'good') La Chanson de Roland s’inspire d’un fait historique bien réel survenu sous Charlemagne, qui n’a pas encore été sacré Empereur. Roland knew now the full extent of his stepfather’s treachery and that Ganelon had accepted gifts from the Saracen king. Adjectives in -re (e.g. D'après la chanson de Roland, Roland est un chevalier de l'armée de Charlemagne.Il est un des héros les plus populaires parmi les chevaliers du Moyen Âge. It is the oldest surviving major work of French literature and exists in various manuscript versions, which testify to its enormous and enduring popularity in the 12th to 14th centuries.. But the deciding factor of the battle was the meeting between the two rulers. one declension to another on the basis of form or gender. Selon la légende qui entoure Roland [modifier | modifier le wikicode]. Occitan, Old French differs fundamentally in this respect from from most other early Roland ordered Count Gautier to guard the defiles and passes of Rencesvals with a thousand Frank warriors. Turpin also received a mortal wound, pierced by four spears, but still the archbishop fought on. Charlemagne then sent two of his counts, Basan and Basil, over to the pagans to negotiate and the pagans chopped off their heads. Les d… Many nouns therefore moved from Though, his shield was in tattered and his hauberk was rent in many places, none of the blows could cut or pierce him. started in early Latin. One included adjectives that They were actually visions of treachery from Ganelon and from Marsile. Even Roland was awed at his companion’s feat, but Oliver was losing his eyesight. He had no desire to rule any longer since he was without an heir, so he was surrendering his city and kingdom (Spain) to Baligant by giving the key to the emir’s envoy. His limbs were pulled out of his body; each limb was tied to a horse. The only formal distinction is Unlike Ganelon, who dropped Charlemagne’s staff that indicated he was serving as embassy on behalf of the king, Roland didn’t not drop the king’s gauntlet and bow now that he have been given command of the rearguard. Because around this time, Marsile had joined in the fray. So with this advice, Roland blew his Oliphant, which Charlemagne could be heard 30 leagues away from the battlefield. when the adjective is masculine. Adjectives in -e follow the declension patterns of Class I feminine nouns when they They broke spear against one another, and were both unhorsed. Einhard stressed that the Basques were lightly armored and the mountainous terrain, therefore they had advantage against the heavily armored Franks. La Chanson de Roland comporte plus de 4000 vers et se divise en plusieurs épisodes. Roland, Oliver and the archbishop returned to battle. Charlemagne’s army had conquered much of Marsile’s kingdom for the last seven years, and Marsile was at loss of how he can prevent himself from losing his crown and the final stronghold to the Franks. Terrified of the might of Charlemagne's army of Franks, Marsilla sends out messengers to Charlemagne, promising treasure and Marsilla's conversion to Christianity if the Franks will go back to France. Adjectives that follow this pattern include, among others: autre 'other', maigre 'thin', Adjectival Declension, Class I (feminine), Adjectival Declension, Class II (masculine). next lesson, The College of Liberal Arts Mailcode S5490 Roland then began searching for all of his Peers, and laid them around the archbishop. The University of Texas at Austin Roland blew his horn again; and this attempt caused the hero to almost faint from the pain. He stayed only for one season or summer, before he retreated back to France through the Pyrenees. Ganelon immediately suggested Roland should protect the army’s rear, while Ogier the Dane take the position of the vanguard. In 778, when Charlemagne crossed the Pyrenees returning from a campaign in Spain, the rearguard of his army … Ten times he beat his sword against the stone, but it would neither break nor shatter. characteristics did not parallel, which led to declensional inconsistencies. There are too many little deeds done by the Twelve Peers, to record here, but the Franks have done very well against Marsile’s forces, right up til noon. cases when they gradually disappeared in the development from Latin to Romance. More than 80 chansons de geste (“songs of deeds”) are known, the earliest and finest being the Chanson de Roland (c.... Chansons de geste are composed in lines of 10 or 12 syllables grouped into laisses (irregular stanzas) based on assonance or, later, rhyme. The Basques easily dispersed in all direction, making it impossible for the Franks to give chase to elusive enemies. Also the person who goes to Saragossa may not return alive if the truce don’t go well. But Naimes and other members of Charlemagne heard it too when Roland blew the horn a second time, and still Ganelon persisted that Roland and the rearguard was in no trouble, and they should ride on towards Aix. 116 Inner Campus Dr Stop G6000 La Chanson de Roland est un récit imaginé à partir d'un fait historique réel, raconté par Eginhard, le biographe de Charlemagne, vingt ans après l'événement. The author of the chanson de Roland was possibly Turoldus, whose name was include at the very end of the epic. Oliver avenged Engeler, by not only killing Climborin, but also Duke Alphaien and Escababi. Roland est le neveu de Charlemagne, sa chanson met en scène sa mort héroïque alors que son armée a été piégé et massacré suite à la trahison de Ganelon. are feminine and those of the Class II masculine nouns when they are masculine. In the declension system of Old French, number and case are closely or fem., e.g. and is used when addressing people, as in: The oblique case is used for all